For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber.

Fiber (American English) or fibre (International English) is elongated stringy natural, man-made or manufactured material. In the case of natural fibers, they often tie together the parts of natural creatures. Natural vegetable fibers, generally consist of cellulose, examples include cotton, linen, and hemp. Cellulose fibers are used in the manufacture of paper and cloth. Natural animal fibers include spider silk, sinew, hair, and wool. There are naturally occurring mineral fibers such as asbestos.

Man-made fibers are those that are made artificially, but from from natural raw materials (often cellulosic). Examples include fiberglass, rayon, acetate, cupro, and the more recently developed Lyocell.

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